copper refining process nickel flux

Nickel: smelting, producing-Metalpedia

Flash smelting. Flash smelting (Finnish: Liekkisulatus) is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite. The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production.

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Method of combined processing of copper-nickel cobalt ...

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to a combined processing in a process diagram of the copper-Nickel sulfide cobalt containing materials with different ratio of copper to Nickel and can be used when connected pyrometallurgical processing of copper and copper-Nickel materials with receiving from them anode copper and rich matte containing 1-8% iron (rich matte ...

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Samacheer Kalvi 12th Chemistry Guide Chapter 1 Metallurgy

 · Describe a method for refining nickel Mond process for refining nickel: (PTA – 3) Answer: ... In the extraction of copper silica acts as an acidic flux to remove FeO as slag FeSiO 3. ii) As Al 2 O 2 is a poor conductor cryolite improves the electrical conductivity.

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Combination of Fire Assay and Modern Instrumental ...

Metallic copper can be used for the quantitative collection of PMs by fire assay [12]. By reduction of the copper oxide containing flux, the collecting copper metal is obtained. The melting process in the crucible happens to occur by reaction between copper oxide and carbon as in the lead collection. Copper powder as part of the flux can also ...

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Water Requirements of the Copper Industry

8. Unit use of water in the electrolytic refining of copper, 1955__ 200 9. Statistical characteristics of chemical constituents and physi­ cal properties of untreated water used at copper mines__ _ 201 10. Water treatment in the copper industry, 1956_____ 202 …

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OF AN IDEAL SMELTER

It is "THE PROCESS" for the 21st Century. The "Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting and Converting Process" which we have evolved from years of research and production experience, is the world''s only commercially proven pyro-metallurgical process to produce blister copper continuously from concentrates. 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 30

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A New Process for Cobalt Nickel Separation

process flowsheet into which the new separation process is inserted. After the initial leaching process of the nickel ore or concentrate, and subsequent liquid/solid separation, purification is needed to remove: a) Copper, if present in commercial quantities, by solvent extraction.

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Borates in Metallurgy and Gold Refinement | U.S. Borax

Metallurgy. Use of borates in metallurgy begins at the beginning—with the mining process itself. In copper mining, 20 Mule Team ® Borax ammonium pentaborate solutions are used to stabilize blasting holes. In the production of steel and non-ferrous metals, borates act as a flux during smelting.

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Discovery of the Orford process for nickel extraction ...

Discovery of the Orford process for nickel extraction. The bottom was mostly nickel suphide; the top mostly copper sulphide. Mining began near Sudbury in 1886. When the first batch of Sudbury ore was poured from a furnace in a New Jersey refinery R.M. Thompson manager of the Orford Copper and Nickel Company knew he was in trouble.

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Environmental Guidelines for Nickel Smelting and Refining

Nickel refining Various processes are used to refine nickel matte. Fluid bed roasting and a chlorine-hydrogen reduction will produce high grade nickel oxides (95%+ nickel). Vapor processes, such as the carbonyl process, can be used to produce high purity nickel pellets. In this process, copper and precious metals remain as a

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Environmental Code of Practice for base metals smelters ...

Sodium carbonate flux may be added to remove arsenic and antimony. Then the copper is reduced by a process known as "poling" with green wood poles or by feeding ammonia or natural gas to remove the oxygen, forming the purer copper to be cast as anodes. ... The carbonyl process is used for refining crude nickel oxide. Carbon monoxide and the ...

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OVERVIEW OF PGM PROCESSING

•Nickel •Copper •Cobalt Sulphate •Sodium Sulphate •Nickel sulphate Base Metal Refining (incl. Magnetic Concentration for some players) Precious Metal Refining •PGMs •Gold Incorporating PGMs into various end applications Processing: c.10% of input from non-integrated miners

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Pyrometallurgical Process

7.3.3 Nickel and copper-nickel slag Nickel production from high-magnesium nickel oxide ores follows a pyrometallurgical process including prereduction, smelting in a blast furnace, and nickel enrichment refining. 71 During the smelting stage, besides the nickel alloy, nickel slag is also generated.

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Electrorefining of Copper

8) Removal of As, Sb and Bi via electrowinning them onto an impure Cu deposit. 9) Evaporation of water and precipitation of Ni, Fe and Co as sulfides. • Table 6.3.2. Typical electrolyte conditions for copper electrorefining Figure 6.3.4 summarizes the total process. Normally, the sludge removal is by

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Environmental Guidelines for Copper Smelting

blister copper is placed in a fire-refining furnace, a flux may be added and air is blown through the molten mixture to remove residual ... contain lead, zinc, nickel and other metals—and whether facilities are in place for capturing and ... cathodes, etc. In the electrolytic refining process, by-products such as gold and silver are collected ...

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Copper Mining and Production Processes Explained

Processes: copper mining and production. Copper is found in natural ore deposits around the world. This page explains copper mining: the production route taken from ore-containing rock to a final product that is the highest-purity commercial metal in existence and used in a wide variety of applications essential to modern living.

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Oxygen Pyrometallurgy at Copper Cliff

Dry sulfide concentrates and flux were injected into the preheated unit using 99.5% O 2 cylinder oxygen. After months of trial and error, batch runs reached rates of up to 3 t/d, with matte grades and metal recoveries at least equal to conventional copper and nickel reverberatory practice, and off-gas analyzing up to 98% SO 2. Calculations ...

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Non-ferrous metallurgical processing | Lhoist

Lime products play a key role in the mining and extraction of non-ferrous metals, including aluminum, copper, gold, nickel, cobalt, uranium, titanium and lithium. Lime is also important for the pyrometallurgical refining and smelting of several non-ferrous metals. In addition, lime products are used in effluent and tailings treatment, and in settling, dewatering, filtration,

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Plus Two Chemistry Chapter Wise Questions and Answers ...

 · What is Mond''s process? Answer: Zone refining. van Arkel Process. For the refining of nickel. In this process, nickel is heated in a stream of CO forming a volatile complex, Ni(CO) 4. It is decomposed at high temperature giving pure nickel. Ni + 4CO → Ni(CO) 4 → Ni + 4CO. Question 2. Some ores are given below: (ZnS, Al 2 O 3, Fe 2 O 3,Cu 2 S)

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US4038068A

Improved method for melting copper base alloys containing from 2 to 12% aluminum including the steps of covering a molten mass of said copper base alloy with an essentially continuous flux layer of a molten salt consisting essentially of from 10 to 90% by weight of potassium chloride, from 10 to 90% by weight of sodium chloride and less than 5% by weight of other materials, said salt having a ...

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Extraction and Refining of the Platinum Metals

passed into the electrolytic nickel refinery. Electro-Refining Operations Copper anodes from the converter process are dissolved electrolytically using an acid copper sulphate solution as an electrolyte. The products of this operation are pure copper cathodes and an anode slime which Platinum Metals Rev., 1963, 7, (41,

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Copper Mining & Extraction Process Flow Chart

 · Copper Mining & Extraction Process Flow Chart. This flowchart made of machinery icons explains or expresses in simple but clear terms the step of the Copper Mining and Copper Extraction Process. Starting from either open-pit or underground mining and using a different relevant treatment method for oxide or sulphide copper mineral (ore).

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US3682623A

a process providing for the pyrometallurgical recovery of copper from copper-bearing material and isolation of lead/tin, nickel and zinc in economically recoverable form. copper-bearing material is initially melted and reduced with solid material containing metallic iron to form a black copper which is refined by blowing with oxygen to oxidize metallic impurities and produce anodegrade copper.

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Reducing the health risks of the copper, rare earth and ...

Figure 4-2. Simplified process flow diagram for rare earth production from bastnäsite ore... 63 Figure 5-1. Illustration of copper and cobalt metal production from copper-cobalt ores ..... 81 Figure 5-2. Overview of the recycling process for lithium-ion batteries at Umicore ..... 82 Boxes Box 2-1.

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How Hydrometallurgy and the SX/EW Process Made Copper …

Beginning in the mid 1980s a new technology, commonly known as the leach-solvent extraction-electrowinning process or, SX/EW Process, was widely adopted. This new copper technology utilizes smelter acid to produce copper from oxidized ores and mine wastes. Today, worldwide, approximately 20% of all copper produced is produced by this is process.

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Copper Smelting

refining. In fire refining, molten blister copper is placed in a fire-refining furnace, a flux may be added, and air is blown through the molten mix-ture to remove residual sulfur. Air blowing re-sults in residual oxygen, which is removed by the addition of natural gas, propane, ammonia, or wood. The fire-refined copper is cast into an-

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Copper Refining: From Ore to Market | INN

 · The copper is concentrated further by slurrying the ground ore with water and chemical reagents. In this process, air is blown through the mixture, and the copper floats to the top. The copper …

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12.9 Secondary Copper Smelting

The process used by 1 U. S. facility involves the use of a patented top-blown rotary converter in lieu of the blast, converting, and reverberatory furnaces and the electrolytic refining process described above. This facility begins with low-grade copper scrap and conducts its entire refining operation in a single vessel. 12.9.2.3 Alloying -

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FIRE REFINING OF COPPER

A process is disclosed for fire-refining copper sulfide having a copper to nickel ratio of more than about 7:3, which process comprises maintaining a molten bath of copper sulfide in a turbulent state to volatilize at least about 50 percent of at least one impurity from the group consisting of bismuth, lead, tin and zinc, then surface blowing the turbulent bath of copper sulfide with a free ...

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General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements ...

 · What is the role of flux in the metallurgy of iron and copper? (CBSE Sample Paper 2011) Answer: Flux is a substance which combines with gangue which may still be present in the calcined or roasted ore to form an easily fusible material called the slag. ... Mond''s process for refining of nickel. Impure nickel is heated in a stream of carbon ...

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Treatment of molten copper alloys [SubsTech]

 · Oxidation of copper melt is the first stage of the oxidation-deoxidation teratment. Oxidation is performed by an injection of Oxygen (from the furnace top or the bottom) combined with the action of oxidizing flux which prevents penetration of hydrogen from the atmosphere (particularly from the fuel fired furnaces). The fluxe also absorbs the oxide inclusions of copper and other metals forming ...

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Copper Purification Process

 · Electrolytic refining (electrorefining) is a process used to make impure copper pure. Unlike aluminum, copper metal is fairly easy to obtain chemically from its ores. By electrolysis, it can be refined and made very pure—up to 99.999%. The electrorefining is at the heart of not only copper purification, but the production of sodium hydroxide ...

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Copper processing

Copper processing - Copper processing - Roasting, smelting, and converting: Once a concentrate has been produced containing copper and other metals of value (such as gold and silver), the next step is to remove impurity elements. In older processes the concentrate, containing between 5 and 10 percent water, is first roasted in a cylindrical, refractory-lined furnace of either the hearth or ...

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Nickel processing

Nickel processing - Nickel processing - Extraction and refining: The extraction of nickel from ore follows much the same route as copper, and indeed, in a number of cases, similar processes and equipment are used. The major differences in equipment are the use of higher-temperature refractories and the increased cooling required to accommodate the higher operating temperatures in nickel ...

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Extraction of Platinum Group Metals | IntechOpen

 · About 80% of the worlds'' reserves for platinum group metals (PGMs) are in South Africa''s Bushveld Igneous Complex. Processing of PGM involves comminution, flotation, smelting, converting, base metals refinery and precious metals refinery. Due to increasing chrome content in the feed and the challenges associated with operating high chrome feed, alternative routes to smelting of PGM are ...

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Innovations : Technology Changes Forge The Future ...

The future success of copper mining lies in the three alternative methods of copper extraction: in situ, new hydrometallurgical routes and mini- smelters. Economics will continue to be the driving force that challenges us companies to change technology in order to stay profitable. —Tony Eltringham, BHP Copper, Vice President Special Projects ...

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